Karaganda is the capital of Karaganda Region in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

It is the fourth most populous city in Kazakhstan, behind Almaty (Alma-Ata), Nur-Sultan and Shymkent.

Population: 497,777.

Modern-day Karaganda dates back to 1833, when local shepherd Appak Baizhanov allegedly found coal on the site of the city, prompting a coal mining boom. By the late 19th century, the local mines had attracted workers from nearby villages, Russian merchants, and entrepreneurs from France and England.